Pediatric surgery is the surgery related to the children. The defects present in position of arteries or septum or warms do cause the mix of impure blood and sometimes it also reduces blood supply that is passing into the body. In cases that the defectives are abnormal, it leads to incompatibility with life, and then it requires immediate surgical intervention. Impure blood circulation in the body will result in cyanosis, which is bluish discoloration of the body. The tissues do not function properly, as they do not process adequate amount of oxygen in the blood.
Cardiac effects in children are different types.
- Ventricular septal defect
- Fallot’s tetralogy
- Atrial septal defect
- Valvular defects
There are about twenty thousand to thirty thousand children, affected by such defects every year. These defects or malformations can be dealt with pediatric surgeries.
ASD – Atrial Septal Defects
Atrial septal defect is presence of hole in the septum, which separates the left atrium and the right atrium. The result of this hole is the mix of impure blood into the pure blood. The symptoms are according to the defect and may range from almost no symptoms seen to bluish discoloration of the body. Sometimes it also leads to increase pulmonary blood pressure and sometimes irregular contractions or arrhythmias. Problem can be solved with an open heart surgery. A split is made in the mid life of sterna. The vessels called double venous and atrial venous vessels are clammed. During this process, heart will be temporarily stopped, by using a solution and a heart lung machine is employed, as cardio pulmonary bypass. Then the right atrium is made open and then the defect will be cleared.
VSD – Ventricular Septal Defect
Heart has right ventricle and left ventricle. The ventricle septum defect is the presence of a hole made in between these ventricles. Usually search abnormality or the cardiac problem gets developed before the birth itself and this problem is mostly found in the infants. With ventricular septal defect, new oxygenated blood starts flowing from left ventricle, in which the pressure levels are higher, towards the right ventricle, in which the pressure levels are less.
So, the blood gets peace with unoxygenated blood. This mixed blood starts flowing back and sometimes gets re-circulated in the lungs. It shows that left and right ventricles have to work very hard to pump enough blood volume than they normally have to do. The result is that the left verticals sometimes get failed and it could no longer pump the blood. The blood, which has to return to the heart, gets back into the lungs itself. Such defect causes pulmonary congestion and when it is severe, it also causes fluid retention and weight gain.
VSD has to be corrected before it becomes severe and if it is not corrected in time, excessive pressure can be built in the lungs and that would cause pulmonary hypertension. With the increased pulmonary pressure, the flow of blood from the right to left ventricles will also be increased. It shows the flow of blood in the backward direction. The result of such event will be pumping of unoxygenated blood into the entire body and the resulting condition will be called as cyanosis or blue skin. The intensity of these risks is dependent upon the size of the hole presenting the septum and also functionality of the lungs of the infants.
If the ventricular septal defect is small, these generally do not lead any symptoms and most probably the defect will be closed as the child grows. If the ventricular septal defect is large, it causes difficulty in feeding breathing, pallor and the poor growth. The symptoms are also caused because of the increased size of right ventricle and thereby increase of the pressure in the lungs.
Paediatric Cardiac Surgery in India for has significant advantage because of availability best team of highly skilled Paediatric Heart Surgeons and world class most advanced technology to deliver best outcome. Everyone year thousands of Paediatric International Cases from Afghanistan, Middle East to African countries (Nigeria, Kenya, Congo, Ghana, Tanzania and and others), Europe, United States, Australia, other Asian countries visit India for its expertise in performing cardiac procedure at lowest rates in the world for world class quality patient care. The cost of most of heart surgery in India is less than one tenth of cost of same procedure in United States, Europe and at least 30 to 34% lower than in any of Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand & other Asian Countries.
Cost of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery
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