A liver transplant is an surgery to replace a diseased liver of a patient with a part of healthy liver from another person. The new liver can either be from a living donor or from a deceased person. But the main criterion is that the liver must be matching the liver of the patient. This kind of transplantation is called the liver transplantation. A liver can be transplanted of the entire organ or just a section of it.
The donor, who donates the liver, can continue the rest of the live healthy without the effect of donated part of the liver. It is because the part of the liver that is taken can be regenerated with a few weeks in the body of the donor, as it is the only organ that can be regenerated by itself in the body.
Liver is found to be a largest organ, present in the body. It is found at right to the abdomen, intestines, kidney, above the stomach and beneath the diaphragm. It looks in dark reddish brown color and looks like a cone. It is around three pounds.
At any instant of time, about 13% or one pint of the blood supply in the body is held in the liver. Two lobes, made by thousands of lobules, are present in the liver. These are connected to larger ducts, through smaller ducts to form finally, the big hepatic duct, which is used for the transportation of the bile towards the gallbladder.
Liver conducts many significant functions in the body, like:
- Converting the food to energy
- Regulation of the blood clot
- Forming the bile and then production of proteins used for blood plasma
- Clear of the blood from poisonous substances like drugs
Need for Liver Transplantation Procedure
The patients, who suffer from ESLD or End-Stage Liver Disease, a liver dysfunction, which is a life-threatening disease, need this liver transplantation procedure. Example of such severe liver disease is cirrhosis. This long lasting disease is caused because of the liver covered by a fiber-like tissue that prevents poisonous substances to be expelled from the liver. There are other following diseases, for which this liver transplantation procedure is required, but not limited them.
- Biliary Atresia – This condition occurs from either absence of the bile ducts or abnormal development of the same.
- Acute Hepatic Necrosis – This condition is caused because the tissue in the liver dies.
- Liver Cancers – Primary tumors in the liver, and not yet spread to the external parts of the liver.
- Metabolic Disease – This is a condition, caused from the chemical activity, caused by the liver in the cells.
- Autoimmune Hepatitis – Damage and destruction of the liver because of the chronic inflammation caused in the liver.
Risks Associated With the Liver Transplantation
Some of the complications of this procedure are:
- Blood vessels blocked in the newly transplanted liver
- Block of bile duct
- Bile Leakage
- No function of the new liver
The immune system of the body rejects the foreign tissues or objects, naturally and so the new liver too. So, the immune system is tricked to not to attack on the newly transplanted liver.
Contraindications for this procedure, which are not just limited to, are:
- Treatment regimen noncompliance
- Serious liver disease persisting, even after the transplantation
- Other medical conditions, like sever cardiac problem, which could not tolerate the hard surgical procedure
- Difficult treatment of current or recurring infection
- Alcohol consumption
- Metastatic cancer, spread around the source location
Before the Liver Transplantation Procedure
To get the liver transplantation done from a died donor, the patient is kept in the waiting list in UNOS or United Network for Organ Sharing, then extensive testing is conducted before the surgery.
Evaluation process for eligibility of the transplant is done by a team consisting of transplant surgeon, hepatologist, nurses, psychologist and social worker with optional dietitian, anesthesiologist.
Components needed for the evaluation of the transplant process to list the patient in UNOS, have the following, however not limited to,
- Urgency – based on the critical condition of the patient
- Diagnostic Tests – to assess the liver and overall status of health of the patient.
- Psychological and social evaluation – it includes assessing the stress, family support, financial condition, etc., which influence the final outcome of the transplantation.
- Blood Tests – to assess matching potential of the donor liver with the liver of the patient
Liver Transplantation Procedure
- You have to wear a gown after removing your cloths
- It starts with IV or intravenous line on the hand. Heart and blood pressure monitoring catheter are inserted to the wrist and neck. Additional catheters may be inserted at subclavian areas.
- You need to lye on the table.
- Excessive hair is removed at the site of surgery
- A catheter is arranged to drain urine
- After sedation, a tube is inserted into the lungs to control breathing through a ventilator.
- Skin is cleaned using an antiseptic solution
- A slant incision is done under the ribs.
- The diseased liver is separated from the structure and surrounding organs to remove and the veins and arteries are clamped to control the flow of blood to the liver
- Donor liver is taken and connected to the blood vessels of the patient, and blood flow is established.
- Bile ducts are connected
- Incision is closed
- Drain may be needed to place in the site of incision to control swelling
- Dressing is done
Liver Transplant Surgery in India has highest success rates at highly affordable rates, approximately USD 50,000 at one of the best liver transplant hospital in India by best liver transplant surgeon in India having experience of performing hundreds of successful liver transplantation surgeries.
Cost of Liver Transplant Surgery
The above Package Cost is a tentative Approximate Package Estimate, which includes initial investigations & specialists screening, stay in a Private Room wherein patient’s assistant or relative can also stay with patient, doctor / surgeon fee, nursing care, medicines & consumables, Airport Pick-Up & Drop.
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