Prostate cancer is the development of the cells of the cancer in the gland, prostate. Prostate gland is the reproductive system of the gland. Most of the prostate cancers grow slow and a few grow faster. Cancer cells from the prostate gland tend to spread the surrounding areas, especially to the lymph nodes and bones.
Unfortunately, prostate cancer does not show any symptoms in the early stages. So, it is difficult to catch the warning signs. The following symptoms are found and experienced, after prostate gland starts to swell, the cancer cells start spreading beyond the prostate.
- Frequent need of urination, intensified, especially during the nights
- Stream of urine control would be difficult, so starting and stopping also be the problems
- Urinary system to be interrupted or weak
- Urine leakage, even while coughing or laughing
- Blood seen in semen or urine
- Burning and painful sensation felt, during the ejaculation or urination
- Late symptoms include feel of tiredness, because of decreased red blood cells
- May effect the sexual function
- Urinary dysfunction
Symptoms of advanced cancer
- Bone pain, especially in the spine
- Pain in ribs or pelvis
- Spreading of the cancer cells
- Weakening legs, because of the compressed spinal cord
- Urinary incontinence
- Fecal incontinence
- Older age, above 50 years male are susceptible to this cancer
- Same disease seen in the family history
- Same disease seen in the same race
- To have first degree relative
- High processed diet
- Milk products or red meat or low in vegetables
- Greater risk from affected brother, rather than affected father
- Men with higher blood pressure
Diagnosis of the prostate cancer is done with multiple diagnostic systems.
- Medical imaging, to check if the cancer cells are spread to the surrounding parts of the body
- DRE or Digital Rectal Examination to detect the prostate abnormalities
- Cystoscopy for uniary tract
- Transectal ultrasonography
The treatment of prostate cancer includes cryotherapy, surgery, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy or radiation. Sometimes combination of these treatments is required to be done to manage the prostate cancer well. The treatment usually depends on whether the cells are limited to the prostate or spread over to the nearby organs. And the other factors for choice for the treatment are PSA level and Gleason score.
PSA is Prostate Specific Antigen test. It is performed to identify the asymptomatic tumors and understand whether they have lethal potential or not, for the patient. Gleason score is done to provide the staging of albeit crude tumors to determine the prognosis. The score is calculated from grade 1 to grade 5, where grade 1 is the indication of well differentiated and grade 5 is poorly differentiated. Another score is also added as prevalent pattern grade. So, the overall score will be the addition of the Gleason score and the additional pattern score and it ranges from 2 to10.
Long term prognosis is considered to be excellent, when the cancer is limited to only the prostate gland.
Outcome of the treatment depends on multiple factors and age is one of the important factors of it. Other important symptoms are health problems, stage and intensity of cancer of the patient.
Cost of Prostate Cancer Treatment
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