Transurethral Bladder Resection is the acronym for TBR or TURBT. It is the standard treatment considered for bladder cancers that are non-invasive. This treatment is found to be an effective and so is a most common treatment preferred, especially at the early stages of bladder cancer. The surgery is performed to burn off the tissues and non invasive tumors, by visualization.
The bladder in the human body is a balloon-shaped, hollow and muscular organ. It is of size of the fist of an adult. The location of bladder in males is in front of the prostate and in female, it is found in between the uterus and the vagina. Ureters are the tubes that carry the wastage to the bladder from the kidneys. Urine is expelled out of the body, from the bladder, through the urethra.
Bladder has three primary layers. These are innermost layer, which is also called as mucosa. Here is the place, where many of the bladder cancers do start. Another layer is submucosa and it contains the elastic fibers to help out the contraction and expansion of the bladder. The other layer is the outer layer and it is covered with the connective tissues.
Bladder Cancer Surgery
Bladder cancer surgery is performed to treat the cancer at all the stages. Based on the severity or intensity of the cancer, either partial or complete portion of the bladder has to be removed by the surgeon. Bladder cancer surgeries are easier to be removed when in the initial or early stages of the cancer, but many of the bladder cancers are not found in the earlier stages.
Transurethral Resection Of Bladder Tumor (TURBT) Procedure
The surgery for TURBT makes use of resectoscope and a telescoping instrument. The telescoping instrument consists of a camera, surgical wire loop and light together. Alternatively, a cystoscope is also used. It is a flexible device and has light and camera along with outer tube-like sheath. The tube has a hollow interior. It helps to remove the tissues and tumors using the surgical instruments.
The surgery starts with the application of a lubricant in the opening of the urethral. It is needed to ensure that the instruments can be moved easily. A catheter is inserted into it and sterile fluid will then be passed through it. The catheter is sterile tube, which is flexible and so is able to inflate the specific organ and also can make the surgeon to view the walls of the bladder clearly. Then a cystoscope or resectoscope is inserted into the bladder, passing through the urethra. As and when the tumor is indentified in the bladder, the cauterization ability of the instrument is used to burn off the affected tissues. The tumor present in it will be pulled out from the urethra, taken to a sterile gauze piece. If there are any multiple tissue layers present around the tumor these will be burnt off. The layer also includes muscular layer present in the bladder. It is done to ensure that every source of cancer is removed from that organ. The residual cancer is ensured to be not present, by taking biopsies present in the same site in the bladder. After the surgery is completed, the catheter will again be inserted to get into the bladder, for draining out the fluids and urine. It is important to do, because any of the loose tissues are not remained and cause block of the urethra. The entire surgery takes about 30 minutes of time.
Cost of Transurethral Resection Of Bladder Tumor (TURBT) in India
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